Ceasar's Mind

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Posts Tagged ‘education

Educational Gates or: How I Learned to Hate School and Love Games

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If you’ve yet to watch Salman Kahn’s talk at TED, head over now and give it a watch- you won’t regret it.

Sal says a lot of insightful stuff here, so I’ll be revisiting his talk several times, but at the moment I want to comment on a small point that Sal makes.

Sal explains that one reason education is failing is because it passes students who don’t fully understand what they are being taught. Not just on a grade-to-grade basis, but lecture-to-lecture. A student might not fully understand a subject, get labeled a B student after the test, and then be expected to understand the next lecture which builds on what the student ought to know but doesn’t. Sal makes the analogy, it would be liking a father trying to teach his son to ride a bike, evaluating him after a week, seeing his son is having trouble maintaining his balance on left turns and noticing trouble with managing the brakes, and then handing his son a unicycle, and expecting his son to manage. It’s obviously faulty, it doesn’t work, and there’s a good reason this analogy doesn’t take place outside of schools.

If you don't know how to jump by now, you're fucked.

Personally, I’ve experienced this the hard way. As a game designer during high school, I once collaborated with a friend to produce a tactical puzzle game (called “Pinnacle”) where a team of five players had to coordinate their military units in order to defeat an AI opponent by utilizing a particular tactic. At one point, we made the decision to, rather than failing the players if they couldn’t figure out a level and making them try again, instead just push them through to the next level (the idea being, we wanted to make it more arcade-y and let players taste the entire game, rather than getting stuck and quitting). In theory, this could possibly work. If each level didn’t require an understanding of previous levels, this would be totally okay. Not being the case though, it (and the players) failed miserably, with players progressing to harder and harder levels despite having never learned the basics (which were often difficult to convey with one try). We quickly realized our mistake and reverted it, and learned firsthand why in Super Mario Bros and other professional games, you can’t just skip ahead nor does the designer push you forward- if you don’t understand the skills required to pass the current level, you’re experience with the next level is going to suck.

I’m not sure if the concept has a name, but if I had to call it something, I’d call it an educational gate. You can’t pass until you have the skills that will be expected of you on the other side of the gate. Most notably, these gates show up in the form of boss battles (although frankly, almost every instance, from the first Goomba in Mario, to random pits in Prince of Persia are technically all gates). Rather than trying to challenge the player, boss battles are typically designed to stop the player from progressing until he has achieved a certain level of mastery with a particular skill. (If you’ve ever tried you’re hand at one of the Legend of Zelda games, you know exactly what I mean.) In fact, I recall reading an article on Gamasutra that detailed a designers experiences with designing boss battles that did not test a player’s skills, and his explanation of how they sucked.

Frankly, I love this article because the contrast between exams and boss battles is ridiculous, despite them being analogous. I mean, okay, they both test us, but really, how much cooler would tests be if instead of just testing abstract concepts, all of the questions were connected to a central theme, that made us feel like we were really accomplishing something?

And furthermore, what if each lecture was a test in itself, that also made us feel like we were accomplishing something, while preparing us to take the exam? That’s how games work. Consider the scene below from Valve’s critically acclaimed Portal.

This scene made me cry.

In this particular scene in the game, the player must sacrifice his friend, the Companion Cube, in order to progress by dropping it in an incinerator. A relatively simple task, but it forces the player to understand how incinerators work.

Another incinerator, but this time, it's used to avenge the Companion Cube and destroy Glados, Portal's boss.

Later, an understanding of incinerators is required to defeat Glados, Portal’s boss. This is the only the tip of the iceberg though- the entirety of Portal, Super Mario Bros, Zelda, Metroid, and many other classics were designed using this pattern. In reality, games are hardly games at all- they’re more like extremely engaging classrooms. (Spoiler: Learning is actually fun.)

Really, schools have such a long way to go, having made virtually no progress in pedagogy despite game designers having illuminated the way since the 70s. Anyway, now you understand why I’m such a critic of education. It’s just too hard not to be when you see it consistently done wrong.

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Written by Ceasar Bautista

2011/03/19 at 20:43

Specialization, Generalization, and Education

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Despite being able to major in Computer Science and Math while being enrolled in the College and SEAS, one of the reasons I plan to drop out of the College is because it mandates taking a lot of courses to provide a wide breadth of knowledge. This is understandable, particularly for those who are seeking a liberal arts education, except in a lot of ways, it really isn’t so much.

I recently attended a talk by Norm Finkelstein here at Penn and listened to him discuss the conflict between Palestine and Israel, and in particular, the atrocities that Israel committed in the Gaza “War”. Finkelstein has spent the last 30 years of his life studying the conflict, and while he has his critics, he is generally a very well respected man. What’s important here though, is why he’s so respected, and that’s because he’s one of the world’s premiere experts on the conflict between Israel and Palestine. More importantly, he is NOT particularly well educated on other issues or other areas of academic interest. (Not to say he’s dumb, just to say that is not his specialty.) Contrasted with a person who is not specialized, I personally see Finkelstein as far superior, for his knowledge has real value, as opposed to someone who knows a little of everything.

Now, to a degree, breadth is important. Many of the world’s greatest discoveries and innovations were only possible through an extensive understanding of mixed disciplines. But too much leads to a complete waste of time.

This is interesting to me because of a recent book I read called Never Eat Alone by Keith Ferrazzi. Ferrazzi suggests that while being a part of many things is important to be able to make connections with people, it’s much more important to become an expert on some thing so that people will have a reason to keep you around. Personally, I find this is why I find I have so much trouble connecting with people- though I know a lot about certain subjects, many people simply aren’t interested, and subsequently no connection can be made. (The problem is compounded by the lack of niches for people with my interests. On that note, I probably ought to set to work to really make one for myself.)

In Here Comes Everybody by Clay Shirky, Ferrazzi’s point is embellished. Shirky points out that in online communities, the most interesting conversations are those discussed over very specific interests. Thus there is a kind of paradox- the more narrow your interests, the less likely you are to connect, but the better your connections will be if you do.

Anyway, regarding education, I would much rather see the University promote more specialization, and simply remove the requirements of minimal breadth since I, and presumably the rest of the world, would much much more value in somebody who can speak about something they are passionate about and an expert on rather than be engaged with somebody who has nothing to say at all.

Written by Ceasar Bautista

2011/01/27 at 18:00